Complement component 4
Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein that is part of the complement system. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream. The proteins work with your immune system and play a role in the development of inflammation.
There are nine major complement proteins. They are labeled C1 through C9. This test measures C4.
How the Test is Performed
Blood is drawn from a vein. Most often a vein from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand is used. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.
Next, the provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm.
Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.
In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is needed.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Why the Test is Performed
C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. When the complement system is turned on during inflammation, levels of complement proteins may go down. Complement activity may be measured to determine how severe a disease is or if treatment is working.
A complement test may be used to monitor people with an autoimmune disorder. For example, people with active lupus erythematosus may have lower-than-normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4.
Complement activity varies throughout the body. In people with rheumatoid arthritis, complement activity may be normal or higher-than-normal in the blood, but much lower-than-normal in the joint fluid.
Normal ranges are:
- Males: 12 to 72 mg/dL
- Females: 13 to 75 mg/dL
Note: mg/dL = milligrams per deciliter (100 milliliters)
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Increased complement activity may be seen in:
- Ulcerative colitis
Decreased complement activity may be seen in:
- Bacterial infections (especially Neisseria)
- Hereditary angioedema
- Kidney transplant rejection
- Lupus nephritis
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
Risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling light-headed
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Sullivan KE, Grumach AS. The complement system. In: Adkinson NF, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 6.