Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance, drug, or medication.
Hypertension - medication related
Blood pressure is determined by the:
- Amount of blood the heart pumps
- Condition of the heart valves
- Pulse rate
- Pumping power of the heart
- Size and condition of the arteries
There are several types of high blood pressure.
- Essential hypertension has no cause that can be found.
- Secondary hypertension occurs because of another disorder.
- Drug-induced hypertension is a form of secondary hypertension caused by a response to medication.
Drugs that can cause hypertension include:
- Alcohol, amphetamines, ecstasy (MDMA and derivatives), and cocaine
- Antidepressants (including venlafaxine, bupropion, and desipramine)
- Caffeine (including the caffeine in coffee and energy drinks)
- Estrogens (including birth control pills) and other hormones
- Many over-the-counter medications such as cough/cold and asthma medications -- particularly when the cough/cold medicine is taken with certain antidepressants like tranylcypromine or tricyclics
- Migraine medications
- Nasal decongestants
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Rebound hypertension occurs when blood pressure rises after you stop taking or lower the dose of a drug (typically a high blood pressure medication).
Many other factors can also affect blood pressure, including:
- Condition of the kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels
- Foods eaten, weight, and other body-related variables
- Levels of various hormones in the body
- Volume of water in the body
Grossman G, Messerli FH. Drug-induced hypertension: An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension. Am J Med. 2012;125:14-22.
Victor RG. Systemic hypertension: mechanisms and diagnosis. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43.