Factor V deficiency
Factor V deficiency is a bleeding disorder that is passed down through families. It affects the ability of the blood to clot.
Parahemophilia; Owren disease; Bleeding disorder - factor V deficiency
Blood clotting is a complex process involving as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation factors.
Factor V deficiency is caused by a lack of factor V. When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly.
Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by:
- A defective factor V gene passed down through families (inherited)
- An antibody that interferes with normal factor V function
You can develop an antibody that interferes with factor V:
- After giving birth
- After being treated with a certain type of fibrin glue
- After surgery
- With autoimmune diseases and certain cancers
Sometimes the cause is unknown.
The disease is similar to hemophilia, except bleeding into joints is less common. In the inherited form of factor V deficiency, a family history of a bleeding disorder is a risk factor.
Excessive bleeding with menstrual periods and after childbirth often occurs. Other symptoms can include:
- Bleeding into the skin
- Bleeding of the gums
- Excessive bruising
- Prolonged or excessive loss of blood with surgery or trauma
- Umbilical stump bleeding
Exams and Tests
Tests to detect factor V deficiency include:
- Factor V assay
- Blood clotting tests, including partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time
- Bleeding time
You will be given fresh blood plasma or fresh frozen plasma infusions during a bleeding episode or after surgery. These treatments will correct the deficiency temporarily.
The following resources can provide more information on factor V deficiency:
- National Hemophilia Foundation -- www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies/Factor-V
- NIH/NLM Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/factor-v-deficiency
The outlook is good with diagnosis and proper treatment.
Severe bleeding (hemorrhage) could occur.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have an unexplained or prolonged loss of blood.
Gailani D, Wheeler AP, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 137.
Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 174.
Scott JP, Flood VH. Hereditary clotting factor deficiencies (bleeding disorders). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 476.