Generalized tonic-clonic seizure
Generalized tonic-clonic seizure is one type of seizure that involves the entire body. It is also called grand mal seizure. The terms seizure, convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Seizure - tonic-clonic; Seizure - grand mal; Grand mal seizure; Seizure - generalized
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur in people of any age. They can occur once (single episode). Or they can occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).
Many persons with generalized tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the seizure. This is called an aura.
- Biting the cheek or tongue
- Clenched teeth or jaw
- Loss of urine or stool control (incontinence)
- Stopped breathing or difficulty breathing
- Blue skin color
After the seizure, the person may have:
- Drowsiness or sleepiness that lasts for 1 hour or longer
- Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode
- Weakness of one side of the body for a few minutes to a few hours following seizure (called Todd paralysis)
Exams and Tests
The doctor will perform a physical exam. This will include a detailed look at the brain and nervous system.
An EEG (electroencephalogram) will be done to check the electrical activity in the brain. People with seizures often have abnormal electrical activity seen on this test. In some cases, the test shows the area in the brain where the seizures start. The brain may appear normal after a seizure or between seizures.
Blood tests may also be ordered to check for other health problems that may be causing the seizures.
Treatment for tonic-clonic seizures includes medications, changes in lifestyle for adults and children, such as activity and diet, and sometimes surgery. Your doctor can tell you more about these options.
Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67.
Wiebe S. The epilepsies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 410.