Genital warts | UF Health, University of Florida Health

Genital warts

Definition

Genital warts are soft growths on the skin and mucus membranes of the genitals. They may be found on the penis, vulva, urethra, vagina, cervix, and around and in the anus.

Genital warts are spread through sexual contact.

HPV and Genital Warts

HPV infection is:

The correct answer is all of the above. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Over 40 types affect the genitals and put you at risk for cancer. Talk to your doctor about how to protect yourself from HPV.

HPV can lead to the following cancers:

The correct answer is all of the above. Most HPV infections don't lead to cancer. But some types of genital HPV can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, and penis. If you are age 26 or younger, talk with your doctor about getting a vaccine to prevent HPV.

Signs of HPV include:

The correct answer is all of the above. HPV is best known for causing genital warts. When present, genital warts rarely cause any symptoms. Around one half of people infected with HPV have no genital warts. So you could have HPV and not know it. If you are sexually active, talk with your doctor about HPV screening.

Using latex condoms correctly completely prevents you from catching or spreading HPV:

The correct answer is false. Condoms may not fully protect you because the virus can spread to the areas of the genitals not covered by the condom. However, condoms do greatly reduce the risk, so you should still use them when you have sex.

HPV vaccines can protect you from getting some forms of cancer.

The correct answer is true. The HPV vaccine helps prevent 9 types of HPVs that can cause cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, throat, and penile cancer. It also helps protect against genital warts. Talk to your doctor about whether these vaccines are right for you.

HPV vaccines are only available for girls and women.

The correct answer is false. The HPV vaccine is approved for use in boys and young men from age 9 through 26. The vaccine protects against throat, penial, and anal cancers. It also helps protect against genital warts. Talk to your doctor about how to get vaccinated.

If you do not have genital warts, there is no way to diagnose HPV infection.

The correct answer is false. Your health care provider can look for signs of HPV infection during a pelvic exam or send a sample of tissue to be tested for HPV. Pap smear results may sometimes show signs of HPV infection. Even if you don’t have symptoms of HPV, it’s important to get screened for the disease.

Doctors can get rid of HPV warts in the following ways:

The correct answer is all of the above. If your warts don’t disappear, your doctor can prescribe medication or physically remove the warts by freezing them, burning them, surgically removing them or using laser treatments. Talk to your doctor to find the right treatment for you.

HPV can't be spread unless you have visible warts.

The correct answer is false. Experts believe that when a wart is present, the virus may be more easily spread, but HPV can still be spread even without any visible warts. Avoid having sex until you have finished treatment and any warts have healed. Always use a condom when you have sex.

An HPV action plan should include:

The correct answer is all of the above. All of these steps are important to help prevent the spread of HPV.

Alternative Names

Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low-grade dysplasia-HPV; HSIL-HPV; High-grade dysplasia HPV; HPV; Cervical cancer - genital warts

Causes

The virus that causes genital warts is called human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).There are more than 180 types of HPV. Many cause no problems. Some cause warts on other parts of the body and not the genitals. Types 6 and 11 are most commonly linked to genital warts.

Certain other types of HPV can lead to precancerous changes in the cervix, or to cervical cancer. These are called high-risk types of HPV. They can also lead to vaginal or vulvar cancer, anal cancer, and throat or mouth cancer.

Video: Cervical cancer

Important facts about HPV:

  • HPV infection spreads from one person to another through sexual contact involving the anus, mouth, or vagina. The virus can be spread, even if you DO NOT see the warts.
  • You may not see warts for 6 weeks to 6 months after becoming infected. You may not notice them for years.
  • Not everyone who has come into contact with the HPV virus and genital warts will develop them.

You are more likely to get genital warts and spread them more quickly if you:

  • Have multiple sexual partners
  • Are sexually active at an early age
  • Use tobacco or alcohol
  • Have a viral infection, such as herpes, and are stressed at the same time
  • Are pregnant
  • Have a weakened immune system due to a condition such as diabetes, pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, or from medicines

If a child has genital warts, sexual abuse should be suspected as a possible cause.

Symptoms

Genital warts can be so tiny, you cannot see them.

The warts can look like:

  • Flesh-colored spots that are raised or flat
  • Growths that look like the top of a cauliflower

In females, genital warts can be found:

  • Inside the vagina or anus
  • Outside the vagina or anus, or on nearby skin
  • On the cervix inside the body

In males, genital warts can be found on the:

  • Penis
  • Scrotum
  • Groin area
  • Thighs
  • Inside or around the anus

Genital warts can also occur on the:

  • Lips
  • Mouth
  • Tongue
  • Throat

Other symptoms are rare, but can include:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam. In women, this includes a pelvic exam.

An office procedure called colposcopy is used to spot warts that cannot be seen with the naked eye. It uses a light and a low-power microscope to help your provider find and then take samples (biopsy) of abnormal areas in your cervix.

The virus that causes genital warts can cause abnormal results on a Pap smear. If you have these types of changes, you may need more frequent Pap smears or a colposcopy.

An HPV DNA test can tell if you have a high-risk type of HPV known to cause cervical cancer. This test may be done:

  • If you have genital warts
  • As a screening test for women over age 30
  • In women of any age who have a slightly abnormal Pap test result

Make sure you are screened for cervical, vaginal, vulvar, or anal cancer if you have been diagnosed with genital warts.

Treatment

Genital warts must be treated by a doctor. Do not use over-the-counter medicines meant for other kinds of warts.

Treatment may include:

  • Medicines applied to the genital warts or injected by your doctor
  • Prescription medicine that you apply at home several times a week

The warts may also be removed with minor procedures, including:

If you have genital warts, all of your sexual partners should be examined by a provider and treated if warts are found. Even if you do not have symptoms, you should be treated. This is to prevent complications and avoid spreading the condition to others.

You will need to return to your provider after treatment to make sure all the warts are gone.

Regular Pap smears are recommended if you are a woman who has had genital warts, or if your partner had them. If you had warts on your cervix, you may need to have Pap smears every 3 to 6 months after the first treatment.

Women with precancerous changes caused by HPV infection may need further treatment.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Many sexually active young women become infected with HPV. In many cases, HPV goes away on its own.

Most men who become infected with HPV never develop any symptoms or problems from the infection. They can still pass it on to current and sometimes future sexual partners.

Even after you have been treated for genital warts, you may still infect others.

Possible Complications

Some types of HPV can cause cancer of the cervix and vulva. They are the main cause of cervical cancer.

Genital warts may become numerous and quite large. These will need further treatment.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if:

  • A current or past sexual partner has genital warts.
  • You have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may not appear for months to years after having sexual contact with an infected person.
  • You think a young child might have genital warts.

Women should begin having Pap smears at age 21.

Prevention

HPV can be passed from person to person even when there are no visible warts or other symptoms. Practicing safer sex can help reduce your risk of getting HPV and cervical cancer:

  • Always use male and female condoms. But be aware that condoms cannot fully protect you. This is because the virus or warts can also be on the nearby skin.
  • Have only one sexual partner, who you know is infection-free.
  • Limit the number of sexual partners you have over time.
  • Avoid partners who take part in high-risk sexual activities.

An HPV vaccine is available:

  • It protects against the HPV types that cause most HPV cancers in women and men. The vaccines DO NOT treat genital warts, they prevent the infection.
  • The vaccine can be given to boys and girls 9 to 12 years old. If the vaccine is given at this age, it is a series of 2 shots.
  • If the vaccine is given at 15 years or older, it is a series of 3 shots.

Ask your provider whether the HPV vaccine is right for you or child.

Images

Female reproductive anatomy

References

Berman B, Amini S. Condyloma acuminata. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 46.

Bonnez W. Papillomaviruses. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 146. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines: anogenital warts. Updated June 4, 2015. CDC.gov Web site. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/warts.htm. Accessed December 2, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Press Release: CDC recommends only two HPV shots for younger adolescents. Updated October 20, 2016. CDC.gov Web site. www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p1020-hpv-shots.html. Accessed December 2, 2016.

Committee on Adolescent Health Care of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; Immunization Expert Work Group of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion No. 588: human papillomavirus vaccination. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(3):712-718. PMID: 24553168 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553168.

Review Date: 
8/7/2016
Reviewed By: 
John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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