Lactic acidosis

Definition

Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels, become low in cells within the areas of the body where metabolism takes place.

Causes

The most common cause of lactic acidosis is severe medical illness in which blood pressure is low and too little oxygen is reaching the body’s tissues. Intense exercise or convulsions can cause temporary cause lactic acidosis. Certain diseases can also cause the condition including:

Some medicines can rarely cause lactic acidosis:

  • Certain inhalers used to treat asthma or COPD
  • Epinephrine
  • An antibiotic called linezolid
  • Metformin, used to treat diabetes (most often when overdosed)
  • One type of medicine used to treat HIV infection
  • Propofol

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Weakness

Exams and Tests

Tests may include a blood test to check lactate and electrolyte levels.

Treatment

The main treatment for lactic acidosis is to correct the medical problem that causes the condition.

References

Palmer BF. Metabolic acidosis. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli, Johnson RJ, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 12.

Seifter JL. Acid-base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 118.

Strayer RJ. Acid-base disorders. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2018:chap 116.

Review Date: 
10/12/2018
Reviewed By: 
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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