A leukemoid reaction is an increase in the white blood cell count, which can mimic leukemia. The reaction is actually due to an infection or another disease and is not a sign of cancer.
Blood counts often return to normal when the underlying condition is treated.
Rice L, Jung M. Neutrophilic leukocytosis, neutropenia, monocytosis, and monocytopenia. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 46.