Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. It is common in premature babies.
Any disorder that leads to high levels of calcium in the blood or urine may lead to nephrocalcinosis. In nephrocalcinosis, calcium deposits form in the kidney tissue itself. Most of the time, both kidneys are affected.
Nephrocalcinosis is related to, but not the same as, kidney stones (nephrolithiasis).
Conditions that can cause nephrocalcinosis include:
- Alport syndome
- Bartter syndrome
- Chronic glomerulonephritis
- Familial hypomagnesemia
- Medullary sponge kidney
- Primary hyperoxaluria
- Renal transplant rejection
- Renal tubular acidosis
- Renal cortical necrosis
Other possible causes of nephrocalcinosis include:
- Ethylene glycol toxicity
- Use of certain medicines, such as acetazolamide, amphotericin B, and triamterene
- Tuberculosis of the kidney and infections related to AIDS
- Vitamin D toxicity
Most of the time, there are no early symptoms of nephrocalcinosis beyond those of the condition causing the problem.
People who also have kidney stones may have:
- Blood in the urine
- Fever and chills
- Nausea and vomiting
- Severe pain in the belly area, sides of the back (flank), groin, or testicles
Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis may be associated with chronic kidney failure.
Exams and Tests
Imaging tests can help diagnose this condition. Tests that may be done include:
Other tests that may be done to diagnose and determine the severity of associated disorders include:
- Blood tests to check levels of calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and parathyroid hormone
- Urinalysis to see crystals and check for red blood cells
- 24-hour urine collection to measure acidity and levels of calcium, sodium, uric acid, oxalate, and citrate
The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent more calcium from building up in the kidneys.
Treatment will involve methods to reduce abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, and oxalate in the blood and urine. Options include making changes in your diet and taking medicines and supplements.
If you take medicine that causes calcium loss, your health care provider will most often tell you to stop taking it. Never stop taking any medicine before talking to your provider.
Other symptoms, including kidney stones, should be treated as is appropriate.
What to expect depends on the complications and cause of the disorder.
Proper treatment may help prevent further deposits in the kidneys. In most cases, there is no way to remove deposits that have already formed. Many deposits of calcium in the kidneys do NOT always mean severe damage to the kidneys.
Complications may include:
- Acute renal failure
- Chronic renal failure
- Kidney stones
- Obstructive uropathy (acute or chronic, unilateral or bilateral)
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you know you have a disorder that causes high levels of calcium in your blood and urine. Also call you if you develop symptoms of nephrocalcinosis.
Prompt treatment of disorders that lead to nephrocalcinosis, including renal tubular acidosis, may help prevent it from developing.
Bushinsky DA. Nephrolithiasis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 126.
Elder JS. Urinary lithiasis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 547.