Restrictive Devices and Exercise Performance


It is common practice for coaches and trainers to have athletes breathe through a tube the increases the resistance for their breathing, often referred to as a restricted snorkel. This is currently used at the University of Florida to train males and females on the swim team. It is presumed that restricted snorkel increases respiratory muscle strength and improves exercise performance.

This study will determine the exercise response to normal healthy individuals breathing through a restricted snorkel. This study will also determine if a respiratory exercise regimen with either the pressure threshold training or breathing resistance training will improve exercise performance.

Exercise performance will be determined with individuals walking on a treadmill during which elevations and declinations will occur. Comparisons will be made of a participant’s exercise response with and without the restricted snorkel. Comparisons will also be made of the participant’s exercise response with and without the restricted snorkel before respiratory exercise training and after respiratory exercise training.

For additional study details, please contact Paul Davenport: 


18 to 65



Monetary compensation


Can be done from home



healthy volunteers

Principal Investigator

Paul Davenport, PhD



Contact Information

(352) 294-4025

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