Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that may develop after an infection with group A Streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever). The disease can affect the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
Acute rheumatic fever
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Rheumatic fever is common worldwide and is responsible for many cases of damaged heart valves. It is not common in the United States, and usually occurs in isolated outbreaks. The latest outbreak was in the 1980s.
Rheumatic fever mainly affects children ages 5 -15, and occurs approximately 14-28 days after strep throat or scarlet fever.
- Abdominal pain
- Heart (cardiac) problems, which may not have symptoms, or may result in shortness of breath and chest pain
- Joint pain, arthritis (mainly in the knees, elbows, ankles, and wrists)
- Joint swelling; redness or warmth
- Nosebleeds (epistaxis)
- Skin nodules
- Skin rash (erythema marginatum)
- Skin eruption on the trunk and upper part of the arms or legs
- Eruptions that look ring-shaped or snake-like
- Sydenham chorea (emotional instability, muscle weakness and quick, uncoordinated jerky movements that mainly affect the face, feet, and hands)
Signs and tests
Your doctor or nurse will examine you. This will include carefully checking your heart sounds, skin, and joints.
Tests may include:
- Blood test for recurrent strep infection (such as an ASO test)
- Complete blood count
- Sedimentation rate (ESR)
Several major and minor criteria have been developed to help standardize rheumatic fever diagnosis. Meeting these criteria, as well as having evidence of a recent streptococcal infection, can help confirm that you have rheumatic fever.
The major criteria for diagnosis include:
- Arthritis in several large joints (polyarthritis)
- Heart inflammation (carditis)
- Nodules under the skin (subcutaneous skin nodules)
- Rapid, jerky movements (chorea, Sydenham chorea)
- Skin rash (erythema marginatum)
The minor criteria include:
- High ESR
- Joint pain
- Abnormal EKG
You'll likely be diagnosed with rheumatic fever if you meet two major criteria, or one major and two minor criteria, and have signs that you've had a previous strep infection.
If you are diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever you will be treated with antibiotics.
Anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin or corticosteroids reduce inflammation to help manage acute rheumatic fever.
You may have to take low doses of antibiotics (such as penicillin, sulfadiazine, or erythromycin) over the long term to prevent strep throat from returning.
If rheumatic fever returns, your doctor may recommend you take low-dose antibiotics continually, especially during the first 3 -5 years after the first episode of the disease. Heart complications may be severe, particularly if the heart valves are involved.
- Damage to heart valves (in particular, mitral stenosis and aortic stenosis)
- Heart failure
- Sydenham chorea
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of rheumatic fever. Because several other conditions have similar symptoms, you will need careful medical evaluation.
If you have symptoms of strep throat, tell your health care provider. You will need to be evaluated and treated if you do have strep throat, to decrease your risk of developing rheumatic fever.
The most important way to prevent rheumatic fever is by getting quick treatment for strep throat and scarlet fever.
Low DE. Nonpneumococcal streptococcal infections, rheumatic fever. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 298.