Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders that affect the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

Neurosurgery is a medical and surgical specialty that provides operative and non-operative management of disorders of the nervous systems, including their supporting structures and vascular supply. Neurological surgeons also evaluate and treat pathological processes that modify the function or activity of the nervous system. Neurosurgeons in the United States must generally complete four years of college, four years of medical school, a one year internship and five to seven years of neurosurgery residency. Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of basic science or clinical research.