A stillbirth is when a fetus that was expected to survive dies during birth or during the last half of pregnancy.
See also: Miscarriage
Alternative NamesFetal death
Stillbirth is becoming less common as care for pregnancy improves. If you have a stillbirth, your health care provider may ask to carefully examine and test the fetus to determine the cause of stillbirth. This may help plan medical care for any future pregnancies. A full autopsy will be offered. You may decline this option if you wish.
Stillbirth can be caused by:
- Birth defects
- Chromosome abnormalities
- Infection, in the mother or the fetus
- Medical conditions of the mother, such as diabetes, epilepsy, and high blood pressure
- Placenta problems (placental detachment or poor placental function)
- Sudden severe blood loss (hemorrhage) in the mother or fetus
- Stopping of the heartbeat (cardiac arrest) in the mother or fetus
- Umbilical cord problems
In about 15 - 35% of stillbirths, no explanation can be found.
Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al. Diseases and injuries of the fetus and newborn. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics. 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2010: chap 29.
Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Churchill Livingstone; 2007.
Dudley DJ, Goldenberg R, Conway D, Siler RM, Saade GR, Varner MW, et al. A new system for determining the causes of stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116:254-260.